Author Archives: laurenandel

Evolution of Language in Information Wanted Ads

  Method

Information wanted ads in The Christian Recorder were seen by people all over the United States, therefore it was imperative for the wording of the ads to be coherent to all sorts of people.  Many of the people who wrote and read the ads were illiterate because they were former slaves who were not given the chance to have a formal education.  Even without a formal education, he language that was used in the information ads in The Christian Recorder evolved over the years that we examined in our data analysis (1864-1869).  In order to examine the language in the ads, I used a word analysis program (voyant) to highlight the key words of the ads in each year.  Immediately after making the word clouds, I found that location words were consistent throughout every visualization.  This prompted me to make pie charts of the advertisers’ cities in each year to see if the prominent location words in the visualizations were the same as the cities that the advertisers were from.  Some of the years also had major words that had to be examined further by charts and/or more research. 

1864 Analysis

The first year (1864) was analyzed by putting every ad in the voyant tool and looking at the visualization to see the words that were most prominent in 1864.  This word visualization is pictured below:

1864

The word that was used the most was information.  This is no surprise because most of the ads said “information wanted of…” in the beginning.  Other words that appear frequently are names of people, these names were common for the period.  The relationships that are highlighted in the visualization are brother(s) and family.  From the word visualization a conclusion can be drawn that brothers were mostly being searched for in 1864.  Finally, some of the words that are prominent are locations.  By using the visualization it was seem that most of the ads were placed in, or looking for people in Philadelphia, Virginia (VA), Brooklyn, and Baltimore. 

I created a pie chart (below) to analyze the cities that the advertisers were from in 1864 and found that Brooklyn and Baltimore were prominent cities.  Portsmouth, Virginia was also a city that a lot of advertisers were from in 1864.  Comparing the information from the pie chart to the word visualization shows that the cities that the advertisers were from were the cities that were highlighted.  The only city that was not represented by the advertiser city was Philadelphia.  The explanation for Philadelphia in the highlighted position was because The Christian Recorder was published in Philadelphia, therefore the city was mentioned in most of the ads.   1864 chart

1865 Analysis

In 1865, the US Civil War ended.  This resulted in an exponential increase in information wanted ads in The Christian Recorder.  The end of the war also brought a change to the language that was used in the ads.  In the previous year there was little to no mention of slavery.  Even though the word slavery or slave is not specifically mentioned in the 1865 ads, words like “sold” and “owned” were highlighted in the word visualization (below).

1865

The word visualization also highlights the word “years” which focuses on the amount of time that the advertiser and searchee have been separated.  The graph below shows the amount of years that people have been apart according to the data that was analyzed from all of The Christian Recorder information wanted ads from 1864 to 1869.  The graph shows that an overwhelming majorities of people have been separated for four or more years.

 years

Like the 1864 word visualization, 1865 also shows locations as key words.  According to the word visualization, the cities that were mentioned were from a larger area than the cities in 1864.  The locations in the word cloud are:  Virginia, Charleston, Tennessee, Winchester, and Richmond. My hypothesis would be that the cities the advertisers were advertising from would be comparable like they were in 1864.  Unfortunately, that is not the case when the word cloud is compared to a pie chart of advertisers cities in 1865.

1865chart

The major places that are shown in the word cloud are not a major part of the cities that the advertisers were from.  However, the location data from the visualization is correct by showing that the locations were much more broad than they were the year before.  The pie chart is cluttered with many different cities that the advertisers were from, unlike the chart from 1864 which only included a few east coast cities. The probable reasoning for the increase in the amount of cities mentioned in the word cloud and the pie chart are most likely because the war had ended so African Americans were searching more and more for loved ones that had been separated because of war.

1866 Analysis

The word cloud that examines the ads from 1866 has many of the same words as the previous ads.  The content of the ads does not change because the content does not change.  This word cloud also highlights words that have to deal with slavery, more so than the words of 1865 with the addition of the word “belonged.”  It seems as though the further away from the war the ads are, it is more likely for the advertisers to mention slavery status.  The 1866 word cloud also highlights more familial relationships like “mother,” “brother,” “husband,” and “children.”  The importance of the relationships between people also seem to be more profound after the war, possibly to get the sympathy of the reader by making them think of their own family.

1866

The 1866 word cloud does not have as many location words highlighted as the 1865 cloud.  This most likely means that there were many cities that were mentioned.  No city or cities particularly stood out in having the majority.  When analyzing the data of the cities that the advertisers were from in a pie chart, it shows that the theory of many cities is correct.

1866 chart

The only city that has a slight majority on the pie chart is Philadelphia.  Like 1865, this most likely is because The Christian Recorder was published in Philadelphia.

1867  Analysis

Like the previous ads the content is very similar.  However, the words “ministers” and “congregations” are highlighted in this word cloud.  In the previous word clouds there was no mention of religion, but it is prominent in this visualization.  These advertisements were during a Great Awakening movement in the United States that especially included African Americans.  In the post-war United States the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.) gained a lot of members.  Since a lot of people were joining churches, it was a good way to help find any information.  Some ads ask to be read in church so the ad will be heard by many people and more than the subscriber base of The Christian Recorder.

1867

The location words in this word cloud are more definitive than they were in the previous year.  Philadelphia is once again highlighted as a major city in the word cloud and in the pie chart of 1867.

1867 chart

After looking at the pie chart of the cities that the advertisers were from in 1867, it is seen that Chicago is the second (to Philadelphia) city that is searching for loved ones.  However, there is no mention of Chicago or the state of Illinois in the word cloud.  It is strange that Chicago does not show up on the word visualization, but it was most likely not stated as many times as other words that are highlighted.

1868 Analysis

1868

Although words that suggested slavery had been included in some of the previous word clouds, they are particularly prominent in the 1868 visualization.  Here, the word “sold”is much bigger than it was in any of the previous word clouds, meaning that it was stated more times in the ads from 1868.  In 1868, three years have passed since the end of the Civil War so it becomes increasingly acceptable to acknowledge that loved ones were sold and taken away from their families. 

It is interesting to note the prominence of female names in this word cloud.  Female names have made an appearance in every year that has been analyzed so far, but never with this much significance.  When looking at the genders of the advertisers from 1864-1869, it appears that there is an almost even split between males and females.  By using the gender pie chart and comparing it to the word clouds, one can see that there is a fairly even amount of male and female names that appear in the word cloud.

gender

The location words for 1868 that appear in the word cloud are very focused on the east coast, like “Philadelphia,” “VA” (Virginia), and “N.J.” (New Jersey).

1868

The pie chart shows that 1868 was pretty evenly split between cities on the east coast.  In previous years there seems to be representation from people further west placing ads.  I am not sure why the locations of advertisements placed in 1868 were primarily on the east coast.

1869 Analysis

1869

1869 was the last year that we collected data from The Christian Recorder and was the year that was the furthest away from the Civil War.  This word cloud agrees with the hypotheses from the previous data collection because more of an emphasis is placed on words about slavery and religion.  This word cloud also shows the prominence of Philadelphia very clearly.

1869

In the pie chart for 1869, 43% of the advertisers were from Philadelphia.  It seems as though as time goes the ads were located in and around Philadelphia.

Conclusions

For the most part the wording of the ads stay the same from 1864 to 1869 because the content is the same.  Words like “information,” “thankfully,” and “received” show up on every word cloud prominently.  However, the language of the ads definitely changes from 1864 to 1869 specifically when talking about slavery and religion.  I thought that it was interesting that the words “slavery” and “religion” were never specifically stated in the ads they were just talked about using different wording.  Finally, by comparing location words and pie charts of advertisers cities it is easy to analyze the important cities for the ads.  In my own analysis of the locations, it seems that Philadelphia and the east coast are always prominent places.  In the earlier years there is more evidence of The Christian Recorder reaching people outside of the east coast region, by that dissipates by 1869.

This data would be useful when looking at the evolution of language in the information wanted ads.  It would be interesting to compare the advertisers literacy rate throughout the years to see if the inclusion of words related to slavery and religion that appear in later years have a correlation with literacy. 

 

 

 

 

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Formerly Enslaved People Searching for Friends and Family

“I was growed up when the war came.  And I was a mother before it closed.  Babies was snatched from their mothers’ breasts and sold to speculators.  Children was separated from sisters and brothers and never saw each other again.  Course they cry; you think they not cry when they was sold like cattle?  I could tell you about it all day, but even then you couldn’t guess the awfulness of it.”- Deanna Garlic, former slave, Montgomery, Alabama(Heather Andrea Williams, Help Me Find My People:  The African American Search for Family Lost in Slavery, pg. 16)

Many people who were enslaved in the United States from the 1600s to 1865 were familiar with constantly moving from plantation to plantation.  Even though an individual was enslaved to a specific master at first, slaves were always being sold and moved all over the south.  Slaves were constantly on the move and it became nearly impossible to stay connected with other family members.

After the Civil War, people who were formerly enslaved did not have to worry about being separated from their friends and family anymore.  Unfortunately, many families were not fortunate enough to be together after the Civil War because they had been separated multiple times before.  Families like the one pictured above were often created on plantations and were not really blood related.  The former slaves had to stick together with the people that they knew and felt comfortable with when they were freed so they would not be alone.

Georgia family, 1899 or 1900Photo Credit Link

Although former slaves had created their own families while they were on the plantations, they still had fond memories of the families that they once had.  It was extremely difficult for former slaves to find information about their family members, because proper records were not kept during the selling of slaves.  It was customary for a slave to take the name of their masters, so names were always changing as well as their locations.  It was also difficult to find formerly enslaved people because of the implementation of the fourteenth amendment.  Many couples were formally married immediately after the fourteenth amendment because they were legally allowed.  Sometimes, it was possible to keep track of family members by word of mouth for a little while enslaved.  Slaves were sometimes able to communicate from plantation to plantation, and could try to keep friends and family in contact with each other.   While enslaved, family members still tried to find one another by running away from their plantations.

Ad in the New Orleans Picayune, April 11, 1846Photo Credit

Jacob (the runaway in the article) was one of many slaves that may have run away in order to find family.  This method of staying in touch was not the best because it relied heavily on oral communication between slaves.  Even if the slaves thought that they had sufficiently kept in touch with friends and family, it was still difficult to find one another after the Civil War.  The difficulty of finding friends and family, led formerly enslaved people to create other methods to gather information.

Shortly after the completion of the Civil War (approximately 1866) an influx of advertisements were placed in newspapers all over the country in order to find out any information about their family members.  Most of the advertisements were placed in African American newspapers, like The Christian Recorder.  These newspapers were generally local publications, but could be subscribed to from anywhere in the country.  The information wanted ads that were posted in newspapers were helpful, but often the formerly enslaved advertiser and/or searchee could not read and/or write.  In order to overcome their illiteracy, formerly enslaved people turned to churches for help.  The Reverends of the church were usually literate and were able to help with the advertisements.  The advertisements that were sampled by our class from The Christian Recorder were not an exception from using the church for help.  In the sampled advertisements, the contact person was frequently a person in the church and the advertiser.  Another way that the sampled advertisements showed how illiterates overcame the problem was by leaving a representative from The Christian Recorder as a contact person.  It was difficult for formerly enslaved people to post advertisements, but there was always a way around the difficulties like seeking help from others.

Another way that formerly enslaved people could search for more information was through the Freedmen’s Bureau.  Through this method, people were able to ask the government for help to find information of loved ones.  Some of the information that was provided was the original location that certain slaves were sold.  This was an avenue that parents often took to find their children that were sold into slavery.  The parents went to the auction spots to see if they could find any more information about where their children went.  Although getting information from the government was slow and strenuous, it often provided some information to start to find friends and family.

The search for families who were separated because of slavery did not stop shortly after the completion of the Civil War.  Many families were never reunited after the Civil War.  Since some families were never reunited, it became a mission for many African Americans to recreate their history and genealogy.  Today there are foundations that help African Americans trace their ancestry.  There are even ways to find out the information as an individual with research tools such as ancestry.com and familysearch.org.  Even approximately 150 years after the Civil War, relatives of formerly enslaved people are still searching for family members so they can have the correct family history.

Sources

Williams, Heather Andrea. Help me to find my people: the African American search for family lost in  slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

The Christian Recorder

How Slavery Affected African American Families

NARA Freedmen’s Bureau

The Making of African American Identity

American Slaves Foundation

ancestry.com

familysearch.org